Hebrew Bible / Old Testament

[See also Hebrew (and related) Language; History of Israel and Near East]
[Cf. also html versions: BHS at bibelwissenschaft.de; parallel MT Hebrew - English (JPS 1917) at mechon-mamre.org; MT Hebrew at kodesh.snunit.k12.il; parallel BHS - KJV at TanakhML]

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  • Biblia Hebraica, ed. R. Kittel (Leipzig, 1906) [link]; vol. 1 (Leipzig, 1905) [link]; vol. 2 (Leipzig, 1906) [link]
  • Aleppo Codex - facsimile images [aleppocodex.org]
  • Great Isaiah Scroll (from Dead Sea Scrolls) - facsimile images [www.ao.net/~fmoeller]


  • S. R. Driver, Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament, rev. 1913 (New York, 1914) [archive.org]
  • W. Robertson Smith, The Old Testament in the Jewish Church, 2nd ed. (London, 1908) [link]
  • T. H. Weir, A Short History of the Hebrew Text of the Old Testament (London, 1899) [link]

  • A. Sperber, The Bible in Aramaic, 3rd impression (Leiden, 2004; originally published 1959-68) [link]
  • P. de Lagarde (ed.), Der Pentateuch Koptisch (Leipzig, 1867) [link]

  • Handkommentar zum alten Testament, gen. ed. W. Nowack, vol. 1.1, tr. and comm. H. Gunkel [Genesis] (Göttingen, 1901) [link]; vol. 1.2, tr. and comm. B. Baentsch [Exodus - Leviticus - Numeri] (Göttingen, 1903) [link]; vol. 1.3, tr. and comm. C. Steuernagel [Deuteronomium - Josua "und allgemeine Einleitung in den Hexateuch"] (Göttingen, 1900) [link]; vol. 1.4, tr. and comm. W. Nowack [Richter (Judges) - Ruth - Bücher Samuelis] (Göttingen, 1902) [link]; vol. 1.6, tr. and comm. R. Kittel [Chronicles - Ezra - Nehemiah - Esther] (Göttingen, 1902) [link]; vol. 3.1, tr. and comm. B. Duhm [Das Buch Jesaia] (Göttingen, 1902) [link]; vol. 3.3, tr. and comm. R. Kraetzschmar [Das Buch Ezechiel] (Göttingen, 1900) [link]
  • Kurzer Hand-commentar zum alten Testament, vol. 14, tr. and comm. B. Duhm [Die Psalmen] (Freiburg im B., 1899) [link]
  • Keil/Delitzsch:
    • Biblischer Commentar über das alte Testament, ed. Keil and Delitzsch, vol. 1.2 [Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy] (Leipzig, 1870) [link]; vol. 2.3 [Kings] (Leipzig, 1865) [link]; vol. 3.1 [Isaiah] (Leipzig, 1889) [link]; vol. 3.2 [Jeremiah, Lamentations] (Leipzig, 1872) [link]; vol. 3.3, 2nd ed. [Ezekiel] (Leipzig, 1882) [link]; vol. 3.4, 3rd ed. [Minor Prophets] (Leipzig, 1888) [link]; (Leipzig, 1866) [link]; vol. 3.5 [Daniel] (Leipzig, 1869) [link]; vol. 4.1, 4th ed. [Psalms] (Leipzig, 1883) [link]; vol. 4.2 [Job] (Leipzig, 1864) [link]; vol. 4.4 [Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes] (Leipzig, 1875) [link]; vol. 5 [Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther] (Leipzig, 1870) [link]
    • Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament (Keil/Delitzsch), tr. J. Martin, vol. 2 [Pentateuch] (Edinburgh, 1869) [link]; vol. 3 [Pentateuch: Numbers, Deuteronomy] (Edinburgh, 1865) [link]; vol. 4 [Joshua, Judges, Ruth] (Edinburgh, 1845) [link]; [Samuel] (Edinburgh, 1866) [link]
  • Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch zum alten Testament, vol. 11 [Genesis] 4th ed., A. Dillmann (Leipzig, 1882) [link]; 3rd ed., A. Dillmann (Leipzig, 1875) [link]; 2nd ed., A. Knobel (Leipzig, 1860) [link]; 1st ed., A. Knobel (Leipzig, 1852) [link]; vol. 12 [Exodus - Leviticus] A. Knobel (Leipzig, 1857) [link]; vol. 13 [Numeri - Deuteronomium - Josua] A. Knobel (Leipzig, 1861) [link]; vol. 15 [Chronicles] E. Bertheau (Leipzig, 1854) [link]
  • vol. 6 [Das Buch der Richter (Judges) - Ruth] E. Bertheau, 2nd ed. (Leipzig, 1883) [link]


  • B. Jacob, Der Pentateuch: Exegetisch-kritische Forschungen (Leipzig, 1905) [link]

Genesis
  • J. Skinner, ICC (New York, 1910) [archive.org]
  • G. Hoberg, Die Genesis nach dem Litteralsinn erklärt, 2nd ed. [includes Heb. and Lat. text] (Freiburg im B., 1908) [link]
  • S. R. Driver, 6th ed., Westminster Commentaries (London, 1907) [link]
  • H. Gunkel, The Legends of Genesis, tr. W. H. Carruth (Chicago, 1901) [link]
  • R. G. Moulton, Modern Reader's Bible (New York, 1898) [link]
  • P. I. Hershon, The Pentateuch according to the Talmud. Genesis: With a Talmudical Commentary, tr. M. Wolkenberg (London, 1883) [link]; Heb. original (London, 1874) [link]
  • G. V. Garland [with unpointed Heb. text] (London, 1878) [link]
  • F. Delitzsch (Leipzig, 1872) [link]
  • J. G. Murphy (Boston, 1867) [link]
  • F. Delitzch (Leipzig, 1852) [link]

  • J. S. MacIntosh, A Study of Augustine's Versions of Genesis (Chicago, 1912) [link]
  • H. Barnstein, The Targum of Onkelos to Genesis: A Critical Enquiry (London, 1896) [link]
  • G. Ebers, Aegypten und die Bücher Mose's: Sachlicher Kommentar zu den aegyptischen Stellen in Genesis und Exodus, vol. 1 (Leipzig, 1868) [link]

Exodus
  • A. H. McNeile, Westminster Commentaries (New York, 1908) [link]
  • R. G. Moulton, Modern Reader's Bible (New York, 1902) [link]

Leviticus
  • D. Hofmann (tr. and comm.), vol. 1 (Berlin, 1905) [link]; pt. 2 (Berlin, 1906) [link]
  • S. H. Kellogg, The Expositor's Bible (London, 1891) [link]
  • M. M. Kalisch, Historical and Critical Commentary on the Old Testament, vol. 1 (London, 1867) [link]; vol. 2 (London, 1872) [link]

Numbers

Deuteronomy
  • J. Cullen, The Book of the Covenant in Moab: A Critical Inquiry into the Original Form of Deuteronomy (Glasgow, 1903) [link]
  • R. G. Moulton, Modern Reader's Bible (New York, 1901) [link]
  • S. R. Driver, ICC (New York, 1896) [archive.org] (New York, 1895) [link]
  • F. W. Schultz (Berlin, 1859) [link]

Joshua
  • J. F. MacLear, Cambridge Bible for Schools (Cambridge, 1897) [link]
  • K. F. Keil (1847) [link]

Judges
  • G. F. Moore, ICC, 2nd ed. (New York, 1918 printing) [archive.org]; (New York, 1901) [link]; 1st ed. (?) (New York, 1895) [link]
  • F. Praetorius, Das Targum zum Buch der Richter in Jemenischer Überlieferung (Berlin, 1900) [link]
  • R. G. Moulton, Modern Reader's Bible (New York, 1897) [link]
  • A. R. Fausset (London, 1885) [link]
  • J. Bachmann, Das Buch der Richter: Mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die Geschichte seiner Auslegung und kirchlicher Verwendung, vol. 1 (Berlin, 1868) [link]
  • G. L. Studer, 2nd ed. (Bern, 1842) [link]

Ruth
  • A. L. Hunt, Ruth the Moabitess: A Short Commentary, Critical and Expository, on the Book of Ruth (London, 1884) [link]
  • C. H. H. Wright, The Book of Ruth in Hebrew, with a Critically-Revised Text…Various Readings…A Grammatical and Critical Commentary; to Which Is Appended the Chaldee Targum(London, 1864) [link]

1-2 Samuel
  • H. P. Smith, ICC (New York, 1904) [link] (New York, 1899) [archive.org]
  • S. Baer, Liber Samuelis: Textum Masoreticum accuratissime expressit …notis criticis confirmavit (Leipzig, 1892) [link]
  • S. R. Driver, Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Books of Samuel: With an Introduction on Hebrew Palaeography and the Ancient Versions (Oxford, 1890) [link]
  • J. Wellhausen, Der Text der Bücher Samuelis untersucht (Göttingen, 1872) [link]

1-2 Kings
  • J. A. Montgomery, ICC (New York, 1951) [archive.org]
  • C. F. Burney, Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Books of Kings (Oxford, 1903) [link]
  • R. G. Moulton, Modern Reader's Bible (New York, 1901) [link]
  • J. Rawson Lumby, The First Book of the Kings, Cambridge Bible for Schools (Cambridge, 1886) [link]
  • K. F. Keil, tr. J. Martin (Edinburgh, 1872) [link]
  • K. F. Keil, tr. J. Murphy [with Berthau's commentary on Chronicles], vol. 2 (Edinburgh, 1857) [link]

  • J. Döller, Geographische und ethnographische Studien zum III. und IV. Buche der Könige (Vienna, 1904) [link]
  • E. Alker, Die Chronologie der Bücher der Könige und Paralipomenon (Leobschütz, 1889) [link]

1-2 Chronicles
  • E. L. Curtis and A. A. Madsen, ICC (New York, 1910) [archive.org]
  • W. E. Barnes, Cambridge Bible for Schools (Cambridge, 1899) [link]
  • K. F. Keil, tr. A. Harper (Edinburgh, 1872) [link]

  • E. Alker, Die Chronologie der Bücher der Könige und Paralipomenon (Leobschütz, 1889) [link]
  • F. C. Movers, Kritische Untersuchungen über die biblische Chronik (Bonn, 1834) [link]
  • K. F. Keil, Apologetischer Versuch über die Bücher der Chronik und über die Integrität des Buches Esra (Berlin, 1833) [link]

Ezra-Nehemiah
  • L. W. Batten, ICC [Ezra - Nehemiah] (New York, 1913) [archive.org] [link]
  • H. E. Ryle, Cambridge Bible for Schools [Ezra - Nehemiah] (Cambridge, 1893) [link]
  • Sa'adiah Gaon [ed. H. J. Mathews] [Ezra - Nehemiah] (Oxford, 1882) [link]
  • K. F. Keil, tr. S. Taylor [Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther] (Edinburgh, 1873) [link]

  • F. de Saulcy, Étude chronologique des livres d'Esdras et de Néhémie (Paris, 1868) [link]

Esther
  • L. B. Paton, ICC (New York, 1908) [link]; (repr. Ediburgh, 1976) [link]
  • A. W. Streane, Cambridge Bible for Schools (Cambridge, 1907) [link]

Job
  • S. R. Driver, G. B. Gray, ICC (Edinburgh, 1921) [archive.org]
  • M. Jastrow, The Book of Job, Its Origin, Growth and Interpretation (Philadelphia, 1920) [link] [archive.org]
  • R. G. Moulton, Modern Reader's Bible (New York, 1916) [link]; NB also ed. (New York, 1896) [link]

Psalms
  • P. van der Lugdt, Cantos and Strophes in Biblical Hebrew Poetry: With Special Reference to the First Book of the Psalter (Leiden, 2006) [link]
  • H. W. Attridge and M. E. Fassler (eds.), Psalms in Community: Jewish and Christian Textual, Liturgical, and Artistic Traditions (Leiden, 2004) [link]
  • R. G. Finch (tr.), The Longer Commentary of R. David Kimhi on the First Book of Psalms (I-X, XV-XVII, XIX, XXII, XXIV) [intro. by G. H. Box] (London, 1919) [link]
  • C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs, ICC, vol. 1 (New York, 1906) [archive.org]; vol. 2 (New York, 1907) [archive.org] [link]
  • A. F. Kirkpatrick, Cambridge Bible for Schools (Cambridge, 1906) [link]
  • A. MacLaren, The Expositor's Bible, vol. 1 [Ps. 1-38] (New York, 1904) [link]
  • A. C. Jennings and W. H. Lowe, The Psalms, with Introductions and Critical Notes, Books 3-4 [Ps. 76-106] (London, 1875) [link]; Book 5 [Ps. 107-150] (London, 1876) [link]

Proverbs
  • R. G. Moulton, Modern Reader's Bible (New York, 1901) [link]
  • C. H. Toy, ICC (New York, 1899) [archive.org] [link]
  • T. T. Perowne, Cambridge Bible for Schools (Cambridge, 1899) [link]

Ecclesiastes
  • G. A. Barton, ICC (New York, 1908) [archive.org] [link]
  • R. G. Moulton (ed.), Ecclesiastes and the Wisdom of Solomon, Modern Reader's Bible (New York, 1902) [link]
  • M. Stuart (New York, 1851) [link]

Song of Songs
  • The Song of Songs, in English Verse, with Notes from the Commentary of Theodoret [also intro. from Athanasius; appendix from St. Bernard] (London, 1866) [link]; NB also 1st ed. (London, 1864) [link]

Isaiah
  • G. B. Gray and A. S. Peake, vol. 1 (New York, 1912) [archive.org]
  • R. G. Moulton, Modern Reader's Bible (New York, 1901) [link]
  • Ibn Ezra, The Commentary of Ibn Ezra on Isaiah, ed. and tr. M. Friedländer, vol. 1 [Translation of the commentary] (London, 1873) [link]; vol. 2 [text of Isaiah, emended according to the commentary] (London, 1873) [link]

Jeremiah
  • B. Becking, Between Fear and Freedom: Essays on the Interpretation of Jeremiah 30-31 (Leiden, 2004) [link]
  • R. G. Moulton, Modern Reader's Bible (New York, 1901) [link]
  • A. W. Streane, The Double Text of Jeremiah (Massoretic and Alexandrian) Compared (Cambridge, 1896) [link]

Ezekiel
  • G. Jahn, Das Buch Ezechiel. Auf Grund der Septuaginta hergestellt (Leipzig, 1905) [link]
  • R. G. Moulton, Modern Reader's Bible (New York, 1901) [link]
  • A. B. Davidson, Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges (Cambridge, 1892) [link]

Daniel
  • J. A. Montgomery, ICC (New York, 1927) [archive.org]
  • R. G. Moulton, Daniel and the Minor Prophets, Modern Reader's Bible (New York, 1901) [link]

Hosea
  • W. R. Harper, ICC [with Amos] (New York, 1905) [archive.org] [link]
  • A. Wünsche, Der Prophet Hosea: Übersetzt und erklärt mit Benutzung der Targumim, der jüdischen Ausleger Raschi, Aben Ezra und David Kimchi (Leipzig, 1868) [link]

Amos
  • W. R. Harper, ICC [with Hosea] (New York, 1905) [link]

Micah
  • J. M. P. Smith, W. H. Ward, J. A. Bewer, ICC [with Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah and Joel] (New York, 1911) [archive.org]
  • M. L. Margolis, The Holy Scriptures with Commentary (Philadelphia: JPS, 1908) [link]
  • T. K. Cheyne, Cambridge Bible for Schools (Cambridge, 1882) [link]

Zephaniah
  • S. Zandstra, The Witness of the Vulgate, Peshitta and Septuagint to the Text of Zephaniah (1909) [link]

Haggai
  • H. G. Mitchell, J. M. P. Smith, and J. A. Bewer, ICC [with Zechariah, Malachi and Jonah] (New York, 1912) [archive.org]

Esther